Statutes for the Pax et Bellum

Student association of the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University

Adopted at the constituent meeting on October 12, 1994; last revised at the Annual General  Meeting in January 2023, confirmed at the Members Meeting with Decision-Making Status  in May 2023.

I. General

1. Purpose

1.1. Pax et Bellum is a non-profit student association without religious or political affiliation, and is seated in Uppsala and under Swedish jurisdiction.

1.2. The purpose of the association is to promote interest in and the study of peace and conflict issues as well as increasing the flow of information within and outside the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University, thereby increasing the interaction between students at different levels, including PhD students, teachers, and employees of the department and the interested public outside the department.

II. Membership

2. Conditions of Membership

2.1. Everyone who is interested in the association’s work, who notifies the Secretary in writing (either via email, through the website, or by filling out a membership form), and who pays the membership fee is a member. The Annual General Meeting as outlined in Section 9 decides both the existence and the amount of the membership fee.

2.2. Membership within Pax et Bellum does not expire, and does not require renewing. The only occasion when the renewal of membership will be required is if there is a membership fee instated during an Annual General Meeting.

2.3. Membership can be renewed by the same procedure as in 2.1.

2.4. Membership in Pax et Bellum is required in order to run for and hold a Board position.

3. Rights

3.1. Every member has the right to vote according to the procedures specified in the statutes and is eligible to run for each of the association’s posts.

4. Withdrawal

4.1. Withdrawal of membership can be announced in written form (or via email) to the Secretary at any time. It takes effect immediately.

4.2. Deceased members are considered to have withdrawn their membership.

5. Rescinding Membership or Expelling a Member

5.1. Membership within Pax et Bellum can be rescinded at any time at the will of the Board, or by the majority of the members (it requires 2/3 of the voting bloc).

5.2. The process for rescinding membership is as follows:

5.2.1. The member in question will be notified via email prior to the Board’s vote on expulsion, and said member has the right to contest and to call a member meeting in order to contest.

5.2.1. The member in question must contact the Secretary within 14 days of the receipt of notice of expulsion in order to call a member meeting and contest the expulsion.

5.2.1. If the membership expulsion is overturned by the membership, membership is reinstated. Any expelled member also forfeits any membership fee paid.

5.2.1. Any member that is on notice of expulsion also forfeits the right to attend events.

5.2.1. Membership can be reinstated at the discretion of the Board following a 12-month period.

5.3. Individual members are also able to initiate a process to rescind the membership of a Board member, and the process is as follows:

5.3.1 Written notification must be given to a member of the Board and must contain the signatures of at least 30 members in order for a member meeting to be called.

5.3.2. The Board is obligated to call a member meeting within 30 days.

5.4. Grounds for Expulsion:

5.4.1. Any behavior that negatively affects the business of the association is cause for a member to be expelled, and to have their membership rescinded.

6. Honorary membership

6.1. People who have made important achievements for peace and security in general and/or who have made important contributions to Pax et Bellum are eligible for honorary membership.

6.2. The Board is responsible for the proposal awarding honorary membership, and it is appointed at either an Annual General Meeting, or at an Extra-General Meeting by a 2/3-majority vote. The Board will send out information about the nomination explaining why it has chosen to nominate said person, as well as information about the nominee, 14 days before the meeting.

6.3. Honorary members have the same rights as ordinary members, but they do not have to pay the membership fee.

6.4. Honorary Membership can only be revoked under extraordinary circumstances and it requires a 2/3-majority vote at an Annual General Meeting. Any member wishing to put forward the revocation of an Honorary Membership must submit grounds to the Board 21 days prior to the AGM.

6.5. Honorary Membership can be posthumous.

III. Internal Organization

7. Internal Organization

7.1. The decision-making bodies of the association are: the Annual General Meeting, the Extra-General Meeting, the Election Meeting, and the Board.

8. Voting Procedures

8.1. If nothing else is stated, a simple majority is required for decisions regarding the running of the organization. Where the voting is even, the chairperson of the meeting has the casting vote, except for elections, which instead are decided by casting lots.

8.2. Simple majority means a majority in which the highest number of votes cast for any issue exceeds the second-highest number, while not constituting an absolute majority.

8.3. If nothing else is stated, voting is by acclamation. A ballot system is required when voting on Board positions, or if any present member requests a ballot vote on the specific issue.

8.4. If nothing else is stated, a Single Transferrable Vote system in which candidates must win at least 50 percent of the votes, is used when voting on Board member positions.

8.5. If the election of a titled Board position is uncontested (only one candidate), the candidate must be elected by 50% of the members present.

8.6. The Chairperson and Secretary of the meeting are not able to nominate other individuals for a certain post (this does not prohibit them from putting themselves forward for various positions).

9. Annual General Meeting

9.1. The highest decision-making body of the association is the Annual General Meeting.

9.2. The Annual General Meeting is held annually at the end of the fall term, no later than January 31.

9.3. The Board decides on the specific date and time of the Annual General Meeting.

9.4. Summons to the Annual General Meeting must be sent to all members’ registered e-mail addresses and be posted on the website and relevant PR channels at least 14 days before the Annual General Meeting.

9.5. Members who wish to add a bill to the agenda have to send it to the Board at least seven days before the Annual General Meeting.

9.6. Members need to be present during the casting of votes in order to have the right to vote. The Board does not have the right to vote on the question of the Board’s freedom of liability. Non-members can be granted the right to attend the meeting by the Annual General Meeting’s decision.

9.7. All members, regardless of duration of membership, can be elected to the Board or other elected posts. There is no membership requirement for the post of Auditor.

9.8. At the Annual General Meeting it must be assured that the agenda is in accordance with these statutes, and include the following items in order (statute alterations can be placed where necessitated):

9.8.1. The chairperson of the Board will act as chairperson of the meeting. The secretary of the Board will act as meeting secretary. Two additional members will check the minutes and count any votes that are taking place.

9.8.2. Establishment of whether the meeting summons was according to the statutes.

9.8.3. Approval of the agenda.

9.8.4. The Board’s program review of the preceding year. The program review includes a review of organized events, established and continued cooperation with other organizations, and any important decisions made by the Board (as deemed by the Board).

9.8.5. The Board’s financial report.

9.8.6. Auditor’s report of the Board’s management for the preceding year. An audit will be conducted at two points throughout each year, at the election of the new board and at the end of the fall semester. Both audits will be presented at the AGM. 

9.8.7. Question of the Board’s freedom of liability for the preceding year. Decision regarding freedom of liability must be taken for each board separately regarding the period for which they were respectively elected. A board is only liable for the period in which it was elected, it cannot be held liable for previous or future boards. 

9.8.8. Establishment of the membership fee.

9.8.9. Establishment of a budget plan for the coming year as prepared by the resigning Board.

9.8.10. Review of bills received within the designated time limit.

9.8.11. Recommendations from the Board.

9.8.12. Election of vacant Board member positions.

9.8.13. Election of the Election Board. This election board will be responsible for the Board elections held the following September.

9.8.14. Other questions and adjournment.

10. Extra General Meeting

10.1. An Extra General Meeting can be requested at any time, as long as it is at least 14 days after the Annual General Meeting.

10.2. An Extraordinary General Meeting can be requested by at least 1/4 of the Board members, however at least three Board members are required. It can also be requested by at least a tenth of the members, however at least ten members are required.

10.3. The procedures in Sections 9.2 to 9.8 also apply to the Extra General Meeting, including the election of vacant Board member positions.

11. Member Meeting

11.1. If the Board decides that a Member Meeting is to have decision-making status, summons to the Member Meeting have to be sent to all members’ registered e-mail addresses, as well as be posted on the website and relevant PR channels at least 14 days before the meeting.

11.2. If a titled Board member resigns longer than a 30 days, excluding academic holidays, in advance of an Annual General Meeting or Extra General Meeting, a Member Meeting must be called in order to fill said position.

11.3. The Board has the authority to appoint a Board member to said position for a temporary period, which can last up to 30 days, excluding the academic holidays (official summer and winter holidays of the University).

12. Election Meeting

12.1. The Election Board is responsible for calling an election 14 days in advance. This election should be held within 30 days of the start date of the fall academic semester.

12.2. The election meeting will involve the following procedures:

12.2.1. Two members who are not running for a Board position will be selected and voted upon to count the votes.

12.2.2. Establishment of whether the meeting summons was according to the statutes.

12.2.3. Establishment of an electoral register.

13. Composition of the Board

13.1. The Election Meeting elects a Board consisting of at least five and at most seven people with a mandate period until the next election meeting. The Board consists of at least the following posts: Chairperson, Vice Chairperson, Head of Activities (HOA), Treasurer, Head of Marketing and Public Relations, Secretary, and one alternative position.

13.1.1. The Vice Chairperson and Head of Activities positions can be combined if necessary. In this case there can be up to two alternates to ensure that there is an odd number of members of the Board.

13.2. A central responsibility of all Board members is their presence at Board meetings. If a Board member is unable to attend Board meetings during a longer period of time, he or she may consider resigning for the remaining mandate period in order to enable a well-functioning Board.

13.3. A majority of the Board members should preferably be employees or students at the Department of Peace and Conflict Research at Uppsala University.

13.4. The Board meets according to its own decision. Other persons can be called in to the Board meetings if the Board decides so.

13.5. The Chairperson of the association leads the Board meetings. If the Chairperson is unable to attend a meeting, the Vice Chairperson takes the place as chairperson of that meeting.

13.6. The Board can make decisions when at least half of the Board members are present. In the first Board meeting after its election, the Board decides on its rules of procedure.

13.7. If a Board member decides to resign, this is done in form of a written statement to the Chairperson. In case of the entire Board or the Chairperson resigning, this is done in form of a written announcement to the members.

13.8. If a Board member takes a leave of absence (for a period up to 30 days), the Board has the right to appoint a member of the Board to that position in a temporary capacity (alternate position).

14. The Chairperson

14.1. The Chairperson is the official representative of the association. The Chairperson leads the association’s negotiations and work, and oversees that the statutes, as well as other binding rules and decisions of the association, are followed.

14.2. The Chairperson holds signatory power in all matters.

14.3. If the Chairperson plans to be absent longer than two weeks, she or he arranges with the Vice Chairperson how her/his duties are fulfilled during this period.

14.4. If the Chairperson resigns, the Vice Chairperson takes over. No decision by the Board or the members is required.

15. The Vice Chairperson

15.1. The Vice Chairperson is tied to assisting the Head of Activities when necessary, but is administratively tied to the Chairperson.

15.2. Takes over for the Head of Activities if it is required for a temporary period (leave of absence) or if the HOA resigns, until a new HOA is elected.

15.3. Takes over automatically if the Chairperson resigns, and it requires no Board or member decision.

16. Head of Activities

16.1. The Head of Activities has the overall responsibility for Pax et Bellum’s activities, and is the head of the Activity Group, which meets on an ad hoc or monthly basis.

17. The Treasurer

17.1. The Treasurer is responsible for the following:

17.1.1. Overseeing that membership payments and other fees are paid.

17.1.2. Application for grants from the state, municipality, and other available grants.

17.1.3. Collection of claims and payment of expenses of the association, as well as keeping verifications for these transactions.

17.1.4. Bookkeeping of the association, including keeping a financial record in line with good accounting practices and establishing balance and result reports for the Annual General Meeting.

17.1.5. Responsible for the filing of any tax documents when required.

17.1.6. The Treasurer has signatory power in all financial matters (with the Chairperson).

18. The Head of Marketing and Public Relations

18.1. The Head of Marketing and Public Relations is responsible for the completion of all event posters, the maintenance of the Facebook and Twitter accounts, and the running of the Pax et Bellum website.

18.2. The Head of Marketing and Public Relations must communicate actively with the Head of Activities to ensure that these duties are done in a timely fashion.

18.3. The Head of Marketing and Public Relations is also responsible for outreach to the membership.

18.4. She or he is responsible for the completion of any required press releases, and assisting the Chairperson with outreach and communications with other organizations.

18.5. The Head of Marketing and Public Relations is also responsible for outreach to other departments within the University and peace and conflict institutions, for example the Dag Hammarskjöld Organization and Northern Africa Institute in collaboration with the Chairperson.

19. The Secretary

19.1. The Secretary is responsible for the following:

19.1.1. Updating and maintaining the member list.

19.1.2. Updating and maintaining the association’s archive, including signed copies of all minutes and reports.

19.1.3. Issuance of the membership cards.

19.1.4. Maintaining the Activity Reports, which are signed by both the HOA and the Secretary.

19.1.5. Takes the minutes at every Board meeting, and if unavailable a person is elected by those present.

19.1.6. Takes attendance at the events, and is responsible for the issuing of participation certificates for members.

19.1.7. Responsible for the circulation of membership information with the approval of the Chairperson.

20. General Board Member (alternative[s])

20.1 The alternate general board member(s) have all the responsibilities of being a Board Member.

20.2 S/he (or they) may play a particular role in planning Pax et Bellum social events, supporting charity efforts or taking on special projects.

20.3 S/he (or they) are in charge of responding to general inquires about Pax et Bellum and ensuring an answer is given by the responsible Board member on more specific questions.

21. Responsibilities of the Board

21.1. The Board is responsible for making sure that the association is run in accordance with its purposes. The Board has the right to make decisions regarding all organizational matters that are not explicitly assigned to another instance by the present statutes.

21.2. Member Meetings can assign decisions on an individual matter to another instance than the Board, but cannot, except through an amendment of the statutes, in a general or permanent way limit the decisional capacity of the Board. The Board reports its activities to the association’s members. In particular, the Board presents to the Annual General Meeting and the Election Meeting a program review and a financial report of the concluding activity semester.

21.3. The Chairperson of the association holds signatory power in all matters. In financial matters, the Chairperson and the Treasurer hold signatory power jointly.

22. Auditor

22.1. The Annual General Meeting hears a report from the Auditor and a Substitute Auditor with the responsibility to review the finances of the association. The Auditor and a Substitute Auditor are appointed by the members at the AGM and proposed by the board. The mandate period is one year. 

22.2. In case there is no suitable candidate for the Auditor’s substitute, the activities of the association may continue until a suitable candidate is found.

22.3. The Auditor controls the association’s financial activities and reports in written form, to the Annual General Meeting and the Election Meeting.

22.4. If the Board envisages the expulsion of a member of the association, the Auditor examines whether the member’s violation of the statutes is to be considered substantial before the Board may propose the member’s expulsion to the Annual General Meeting.

22.5. The Auditor and the Substitute Auditor do not need to be members of the association.

23. Election Board

23.1. The Election Board must consist of two, maximum of three, people elected at the AGM. This board will include an Election Administrator who will be responsible for chairing the meeting and an Election Clerk responsible for recording results.

23.2. Members of the Election Board are not permitted to be running for Board positions.

23.3. Members of the Election Board will be responsible for the scheduling and the running of the election meeting.

23.4. Members will work to recruit potential new members of the Board and accept declarations of candidacy.

23.5. It is required that the Election Board publicly announces that they are looking for candidates for the Board at least 14 days before the election meeting. This can be done through the invitation of the Board to the Election Meeting, or separately.

23.6. If any Election Board member resigns, the Election Board meets in late May or early June to fill the Election Board.

IV. Miscellaneous

24. Finances

24.1. The financial year shall be split into two semesters Fall and Spring with an audit at the close of each semester.

24.2. The Members at the Annual General Meeting approve the budget proposed by the board. 

24.3. Only the members at the Annual General Meeting can decide to instate a membership fee.

24.4. Pax et Bellum is only liable with its own funds. A personal liability of its members is excluded.

25. Modification of the Statutes

25.1. For modifications of the statutes to be adopted a simple majority is required at two subsequent decision making meetings (one of which must be an Annual General Meeting).

26. Dissolution of Pax et Bellum

26.1. Proposal of dissolution of the association must be sent by email to the members (by the Chairperson) in connection to the summons to an Annual General Meeting. It must also be posted on the website.

26.2. It is only possible to dissolve Pax et Bellum through a 2/3 majority vote at two subsequent Annual General Meetings.

26.3. If, at a final decision in favor of dissolution and after the final settlements of all outstanding debts any organizational funds remain, these shall befall The Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation

27. Anti-discrimination guidelines

27.1. Pax et Bellum is a democratic association, and we strive to always be inclusive and available to all students regardless of sex, gender identity or expression, race, ethnicity, religion or other belief, disability, sexual orientation or age. We want to make sure that everyone feels welcome and safe when participating in Pax et Bellum activities and events. All members of the board are undertaking the responsibility to promote and maintain a stimulating working climate, where everyone is treated in a considerate and respectful way.

27.2. Pax et Bellum takes a stand against all forms of discrimination and will work towards preventing said incidents within the Pax et Bellum organization. We will not tolerate behaviors that violate a person’s dignity or in other ways harm someone. People who are affected will be strengthened and supported in every way possible within the Pax et Bellum organization.